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ACADEMIC RESEARCH PAPERS

Motivation and Cognition

Why people do what they do is what the study of motivation is all about, whereas the study of cognition is about how people think. Thinking was always hailed as the epitome of human rationality, whereas motivation, that is cravings, wishes, and desires, was thought of as a source of bias and distortion. People were admonished to “use their head” rather than “follow their heart” when making a decision. But psychological research in general, and papers in this section in particular recognize that the dichotomy between motivation and cognition is artificial. As we claim in our paper  “All thinking is wishful thinking”, cognitive activity is propelled by our motivations. Our wishes and desires are cognitively represented. We are aware of our goals and pursue them with means we think are best.  

 

Papers and book chapters in this section thus deal with the relation between our wishes and our ideas, and show how they are intertwined to jointly drive behavior. 

Peer-Reviewed Papers

Szumowska, E. & Kruglanski, A.W. (in press). The psychology of getting busy: Multitasking as a consequence of goal activation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

 

Pierro, A., Pica, G., Dentale, F., Gelfand, M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2020). The Unique Role of Regulatory Mode Orientations in Implicit and Explicit Self-Forgiveness. Social Psychology. Advance online publication. PDF

 

Kruglanski, A.W., Szumowska, E. & Kopetz. C.E. (in press). The call of the wild: How extremism happens. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

Jasko, K, Webber, D. Molinario, E. & Kruglanski, A.W. (in press). Ideological Extremism among Syrian Refugees Is Negatively Related to Intentions to Migrate to the West. Psychological Science

 

Kossowska, M., Szumowska, E., Szwed, P. Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, A. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2020). Helping when the desire is low: Expectancy as a Booster. Motivation and Emotion. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Jasko, K. & Friston, K. (2020). All thinking is wishful thinking. Trends in Cognitive Science. PDF

Baldner, C., Jaume, L. C., Pierro, A., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2019). the epistemic bases of prejudice: the role of need for cognitive closure. TPM: Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 26(3), 447-461. PDF

Dugas, M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2018). Shared Reality as Collective Closure. Current opinion in Psychology, 23, 72-76. PDF

Kossowska, M., Szumowska, E., Dragon, P., Jaśko, K., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2018). Disparate roads to certainty processing strategy choices under need for closure. European Review of Social Psychology, 29(1), 161-211. PDF

Kruglanski, A. W., Factor, A., & Jaśko, K. (2018). Is “behavior” the problem?. Social Psychological Bulletin, 13, e26138. PDF

Kruglanski, A. W., Jasko, K., Milyavsky, M., Chernikova, M., Webber, D., Pierro, A., & di Santo, D. (2018). All about cognitive consistency: A reply to commentaries. Psychological Inquiry, 29(2), 109-116. PDF

Kruglanski, A. W. (2017). Motivational phases on the road to action. Motivation Science, 3(3), 196-207. PDF

Milyavsky, M., Kruglanski, A.W., Chernikova, M., & Schori-Eyal, N. (2017). Evidence for arrogance: On the relative importance of expertise, outcome, and manner information. PLOS One, 12(7), E0180420. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Chernikova, M., Jasko, K. (2017). Social psychology circa 2016: A field on steroids. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47(1), 1-10. PDF

Kossowska, M., Bukowski, M., Guinote, A., Dragon, P., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2016). Self-image threat decreases stereotyping: The role of motivation toward closure. Motivation and Emotion, 40(6), 830-841. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Chernikova, M., Jasko, K. (2016). Aspects of motivation: Reflections on Roy Baumeister’s essay. Motivation and Emotion, 1-5. PDF

Brizi, A., Mannetti, L., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2016). The closing of open minds: Need for closure moderates the impact of uncertainty salience on outgroup discrimination. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55(2), 244-262. PDF

Bélanger, J. J., Pierro, A., Barbieri, B., De Carlo, N. A., Falco, A., & Kruglanski, A. W.  (2016). One size doesn’t fit all: the influence of supervisors’ power tactics and  subordinates’ need for cognitive closure on burnout and stress. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(2), 287-300. PDF

Pica, G., Bélanger, J. J., Pantaleo, G., Pierro, A., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2016). Prejudice in person memory: Self-threat biases memories of stigmatized group members. European Journal of Social Psychology, 46(1), 124-131. PDF

Bélanger, J. J., Pierro, A., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2015). Social power tactics and subordinates’ compliance at work: The role of need for cognitive closure. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 65(4),  163-169. PDF

Roets, A., Kruglanski, A. W., Kossowska, M., Pierro, A., & Hong, Y. Y. (2015). Chapter Four-The Motivated Gatekeeper of Our Minds: New Directions in Need for Closure Theory and Research. Advances in experimental social psychology, 52, 221-283. PDF

Viola, V., Tosoni, A., Brizi, A., Salvato, I., Kruglanski, A. W., Galati, G., & Mannetti, L. (2015). Need for cognitive closure modulates how perceptual decisions are affected by  task difficulty and outcome relevance. PloS one, 10(12), e0146002. PDF

Pierro, A., Sheveland, A., Livi, S., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2015). Person-group fit on the need for cognitive closure as a predictor of job performance, and the mediating role of  group identification. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 19(2), 77. PDF

Belanger, J. J., Kruglanski, A.W., Chen, X., Orehek, E. & Johnson, D.J. (2015). When Mona Lisa Smiled and Love was in the Air: On the Cognitive Energetics of Motivated Judgments. Social Cognition, 2, 104-119. PDF

Livi, S., Kruglanski, A. W., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., & Kenny, D. A. (2015). Epistemic motivation and perpetuation of group culture: Effects of need for cognitive closure on  trans-generational norm transmission. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision  Processes, 129, 105-112. PDF

Bélanger, J. J., Kruglanski, A. W., Chen, X., & Orehek, E. (2014). Bending perception to desire: Effects of task demands, motivation, and cognitive resources. Motivation and Emotion, 38(6), 802-814. PDF

Viola, V., Tosoni, A., Kruglanski, A. W., Galati, G., & Mannetti, L. (2014). Routes of motivation: Stable psychological dispositions are associated with dynamic changes in  cortico-cortical functional connectivity. PloS one, 9(6), e98010. PDF

Pica, G., Pierro, A., Bélanger, J. J., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2014). The role of need for cognitive closure in retrieval-induced forgetting and misinformation effects in eyewitness memory. Social Cognition, 32(4), 337-359. PDF

Kruglanski, A. W., Chernikova, M., Rosenzweig, E., & Kopetz, C. (2014). On motivational readiness. Psychological Review, 121(3), 367. PDF

Kruglanski, A. W., Raglan, G. B., Schulkin, J., Babush, M., & Farrow, V. A. (2014). Need to know: the need for cognitive closure impacts the clinical practice of obstetrician/ gynecologists. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 14(1), 122. PDF

Pierro, A., Giacomantonio, M., Kruglanski, A. W., & van Knippenberg, D. (2014). Follower need for cognitive closure as moderator of the effectiveness of leader procedural fairness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(4), 582-595. PDF

Belanger, J.J., Lafreniere, M-A. Vallerand, R.J. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2013) Driven by fear: The effect of success and failure information on passionate individuals’ performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 180-195. PDF

Belanger, J.J., Lafreniere, M-A. Vallerand, R.J. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2013). When passion makes the heart grow colder: The role of passion in alternative goal suppression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 126-147. PDF

Hogg, M.A., Kruglanski, A.W., and van den Bos, K. (2013) Uncertainty and the roots of extremism. Journal of Social Issues, 69, 407-418. PDF

Köpetz, C.E. Lejuez, C.W., Wiers, R.W. & Kruglanski, A.W (2013). Motivation and Self Regulation in Addiction: A Call for Convergence. Perspectives in Psychological Science,  8, 3-24. PDF

Pica, G., Pierro, A., Bélanger, J. J., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2013). The motivational dynamics of retrieval-induced forgetting: A test of cognitive energetics theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(11), 1530-1541. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (2013). Only one? The Default-Interventionist Framework as a Unimodel. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 242-247. PDF

Pica, G., Pierro, A. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2013). Effect of Circadian Rhythms on Retrieval Induced Forgetting. Cognitive Processes, 15(1), 29-38. PDF

Roets, A., Van Hiel, A. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2013). When motivation backfires: Optimal levels of motivation as a function of cognitive capacity in information relevance perception and social judgment. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 261-273. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Belanger, J., Chen, X., Kopetz, C. Pierro, A. & Mannetti, L. (2012). The Energetics of Motivated Cognition: A Force Field Analysis. Psychological Review,  119, 1-20.  PDF

Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A.W. & Raven, B.H. (2012). Motivational underpinnings of social  influence in work settings: Bases of social power and the need for cognitive closure. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 41-52. PDF

Pierro, A, Mannetti, L., Kruglanski, A.W., Klein, K. Orehek, E. (2012). Persistence of attitude change, and attitude-behavior correspondence based on extensive processing of source information. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 103-111. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., & Gigerenzer, G. (2011). Intuitive and deliberate judgments are based on common principles. Psychological Review, 118, 97-109. PDF

Kopetz, C.E., Reynolds, E.K., Hart, C.L., Kruglanski, A.W., & Lejuez, C.W., (2010). Social context and perceived effects of drugs on sexual behavior among individuals who use both heroin and cocaine. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 214-220. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Orehek, E. Deschesne, M., & Pierro, A. (2010). Lay epistemic theory: The motivational, cognitive, and social aspects of knowledge formation. Social and Personal Psychology Compass, 4, 939-950. PDF

Mannetti, L., Giacomantonio, M. Higgins, E.T., Pierro, A & Kruglanski, A.W. (2010). Tailoring visual images to Fit: Value Creation in Persuasive Messages. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 206-215. PDF

Mannetti, L., Levine, J.M., Pierro, A., & Kruglanski, A.W., (2010). Group reaction to defection: The impact of shared reality. Social Cognition, 28, 447-464. PDF

Orehek, E., Dechesne, M., Fishbach, A., Kruglanski, A.W., Chun, W.Y. (2010). On the inferential epistemics of trait centrality in impression formation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1120-1135. PDF

Orehek, E., Fishman, S., Dechesne, M., Doosje, B., Kruglanski, A.W., Cole, A.P.  Saddler, B., & Jackson, T. (2010). Need for closure and the social response to terrorism. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 32, 279-290. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Dechesne,M., Orehek, E., & Pierro, A. (2009). Three decades of lay epistemics: The why, how, and who of knowledge formulation. European Review of Social Psychology, 20, 146-191. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Orehek, E., & Dechesne, M. (2009). Lay epistemic theory: The motivational, cognitive, and social aspects of knowledge formation. European Review of Social Psychology, 20, 146-191. PDF

Kopetz, C.E., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2008). Effects of accessibility and subjective relevance on the use of piecemeal and category information in impression formation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 692-705. PDF

Kruglanski, A, W., Pierro, A., & Spina, I. (2008). Night and day you are the one: On circadian mismatches and the transference effect in social perception. Psychological Science, 19, 296-301. PDF

Pierro, A., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2008). ‘Seizing and freezing; on a significant-person schema: Need for closure and the transference effect in social judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1492-1503. PDF

Erb, H.-P., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Spiegel, S., & Kruglanski, A. (2007). Biased processing of persuasive information: On the functional equivalence of cues and message arguments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 1057-1075. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Orehek, E. (2007). Partitioning the domain of human inference: Dual mode and system models and their alternatives. Annual Review of Psychology, 8, 291-316. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Erb, H-P, & Chun, W.Y. (2007). On the parameters of social judgment. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 255-303. 

Livi, S., DeGrada, E., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Kruglanski, A.W. & Kenny, D. (2007). Bisogno di chiusura cognitiva e trasmissione di norme sperimentalmente indotte in piccoli gruppi (Need for cognitive closure and transmission of experimentally induced norms in small groups). Giornale Italiano di Psicologia (Italian Journal of Psychology), 34, 581-601.

Mannetti, L., Pierro, A., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2007). Who regrets more after choosing a non-status-quo option? Post decisional regret under need for cognitive closure. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 186-196. PDF

Pierro, A., Cicero, L., Bonaiuto, M., Van Knippenberg, D. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2007).  Leader group prototypicality and resistance to organizational change: The moderating role of need for closure and team identification. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology, 14,  27-40. PDF

Pierro, A., De Garda, E., Kruglanski, A.W., & Raven, B.H. (2007). Guardo di accenttazione di forme diverse di poste, stili di gestione dei conflitti e commitment organizzativo (Degree of acceptance of different forms of power, styles of conflict management and organization commitment). Rassegna di Psicologia, 24, 71-92.

Chun, W.Y. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2006) The Role of Task Demands and Processing Resources in the Use of Base Rate and Individuating Information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 205-217. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. , Chen, X. Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Erb, H.P. & Spiegel, S. (2006). Persuasion according to the unimodel: Implications for cancer communication. Journal of Communication, 56, 105-122. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Dechesne, M. (2006). Are Associative and Propositional Processes Qualitatively Distinct? A Comment on Gawronski & Bodenhausen (2006). Psychological Bulletin, 132, 736-739. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Dechesne, M., Erb, H.P., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L. & Chun, W.Y. (2006). Modes, Systems and the Sirens of Specificity: The Issues in Gist. Psychological Inquiry (Authors’ Response to Commentaries), 17, 256-264. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Erb, H.P., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., & Chun. W.Y. (2006). On parametric continuities in the world of binary either ors. Psychological Inquiry 17, 153-165. (target article). PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L. & DeGrada, E. (2006). Groups as epistemic providers: Need for closure and the unfolding of group centrism. Psychological Review, 113, 84-100. PDF

Chirumbolo, A., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Areni, A. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2005). Motivated closed mindedness and creativity in small groups. Small Groups Research, 36, 59-82. PDF

Erb, H.P., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2005). Persuasion: Ein oder Zwei Processe. (Persuasion: One or two processes). Zeitschrift fuer Sozial Psychologie, 36, 117-131. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Raviv, A., Bar-Tal, D., Raviv, A., Sharvit, K., Ellis, S., Bar, R., Pierro, A., & Mannetti, L. (2005). Says Who?: Epistemic Authority Effects in Social Judgment. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 346-392.

Pierro, A., Cicero, L., Bonaiuto, M., Van Knippenberg, D. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2005). Leader group prototypicality and leadership effectiveness: The moderating roles of need for cognitive closure. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 503-516. PDF

Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Erb, H.P., Spiegel, S. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2005). Informational length and order of presentation as determinants of persuasion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 458-469. PDF

Chirumbolo, A., Livi, S., Mannetti, L., Pierro, A. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2004). Effects of need for closure on creativity in small group interactions. European Journal of  Personality, 18, 265-278. PDF

Kosic, A., Kruglanski, A.W., Pierro, A. & Mannetti, L. (2004). Social cognition of Immigrants Acculturation: Effects of the Need for Closure and the Reference Group at Entry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 796-813. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (2004). The quest for the gist: On challenges of going abstract in social personality psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 156-163. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Dechesne, M. & Chun, W.Y. (2004). Culture, thought and the unimodel. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology, 2, 143-167. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., & Higgins, E.T. (2004) Theory construction in social personality psychology: Personal experiences and lessons learned. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 96-97.

Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Kruglanski, A.W. & Sleeth-Keppler, D. (2004). Relevance  Override: On the reduced impact of “cues” under high motivation conditions of  persuasion studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 251-264.

Pierro, A., DeGrada, E., Mannetti, L., Livi, S. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2004). Bisogno di chiusura cognitiva e risposta a violazioni normative di carattere quotidiano. (Need for closure and response to normative violations of everyday nature). Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 31, 129-140. PDF

Bar-Joseph, U., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2003). Intelligence Failure and Need for Cognitive Closure: On the Psychology of the Yom Kippur Surprise. Political Psychology, 24, 75-99. PDF

Erb, H.P., Kruglanski, A.W., Chun, Y.W., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., & Spiegel, S. (2003). Searching for commonalities in human judgment: The Parametric unimodel and its dual model alternatives. European Review of Social Psychology, 14, 1-48. PDF

Jost, J.T., Glaser, J., Kruglanski, A.W. & Sullaway, F.J. (2003). Exceptions that prove the rule: Using a theory of motivated social cognition to account for ideological incongruities and political anomalies, Psychological Bulletin, 129,. 383-393. PDF

Jost, J.T., Glaser, J., Kruglanski, A.W. & Sullaway, F.J. (2003). Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 339-375. PDF

Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., DeGrada, El, Livi, S., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2003) Autocracy bias in informal groups under need for closure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,  29, 405-417. PDF

Chun, W.Y., Spiegel, S. & Kruglanski, A. W. (2002). Assimilative behavior identification can also be resource dependent: A Unimodel-Based Analysis of Dispositional Attribution Phases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 542-555. PDF

Jost, J.T. & Kruglanski, A.W., (2002). The estrangement of social constructionism and experimental social psychology: A history of the rift and prospects for reconciliation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 168-187. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Shah, J.Y., Pierro, A. & Manetti, L. (2002). When similarity breeds contempt: Need for closure and the allure of homogeneous and self-resembling groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 642-662. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. Sleet-Keppler, D., Erb, H.P. Fishbach, A., Pierro, A., & Manetti, L. (2002). All you need is one: The persuasion unimodel and its dual-mode Alternatives. New Review of Social Psychology, 1, 62-71.

Mannetti, L., Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A.W., Taris, T., & Bezinovic, P. (2002). A cross cultural study of the need for cognitive closure scale: comparing its structure in Croatia, Italy, the USA and the Netherlands. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 139-156. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (2001). Motivation and social cognition: Enemies or a love story? Revista Internacional de Psicologia y Terapia Psicologica. 1, 33-45. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (2001). That “vision thing”: The state of theory in social and personality psychology at the edge of the new millennium. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 871-875. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (2000). Clausura mental motivada: cerrando las puertas de nuestra alma. Revista de Psicologia Social, 15, 243-260. PDF

Sigall, H., Kruglanski, A.W., & Fyock, J. (2000). Wishful thinking and procrastination. Journal of Personality and Social Behavior. 15, 283-296. PDF

De Grada, E., Kruglanski, A.W., Mannetti, L., & Piero, A. (1999). Motivated Cognition and Group Interaction: Need for Closure Affects the Contents and Processes of Collective Negotiations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 346-365. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Thompson, E.P. (1999). Persuasion by a single route: A view from the unimodel. Psychological Inquiry, 10, 83-110. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Thompson, E.P. (1999). The illusory second mode, or the Cue is the Message. Psychological Inquiry, 10, 182-193. PDF

Richter, L. & Kruglanski, A.W. (1999). Motivated search for common ground: Need for closure effects on audience design in interpersonal communication. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1101-1114. PDF

Richter, L. & Kruglanski, A.W. (1998). Seizing on the latest: Motivationally driven recency effects in impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 279-301. PDF

Shah, J. Y., Kruglanski, A.W., & Thompson, E.P. (1998). Membership has its (epistemic) rewards: Need for closure effects on ingroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 383-393. PDF

Webster, D. M. and Kruglanski, A. W. (1998). Cognitive and social consequences of the motivation for closure. The European Review of Social Psychology. 8, 133-183. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Atash, M.N., DeGrada, E., Mannetti, L. & Pierro, A. (1997). Psychological theory testing versus psychometric nay saying: Need for closure scale and the Neuberg et al. critique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 10051016. PDF

Rubini, M. & Kruglanski, A.W. (1997). Brief encounters ending in estrangement: Motivated languageuse and interpersonaI rapport. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 12, 1047 1060. PDF

Webster, D.M., Kruglanski, A.W. & Pattison, D.A. (1997). Motivated language use in intergroup contexts: Need for closure effects on the linguistic intergroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1122113 1. PDF

De Grada, E., Kruglanski, A.W., Mannetti, L., Pierro, A., & Webster, D.M. (1996). Un'analisi strutturale comparativa delle version, USA e italiana della scala di "Bisogno di chiusura cognitiva" di Webster & Kruglanski. Testing, Psicometria, Metodologia, 3, 518. 

Dijksterhuis, A.P.; Van Knippenberg, A.D.; Kruglanski, A.W.; & Schaper, C. (1996). Motivated social cognition: Need for closure effects on memory and judgment. Journal  of Experimental Social Psychology, 32, 254270. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (1996). The storehouse/correspondence partition in memory research: Promises and perils. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 198199. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Freund, T. & BarTal, D. (1996). Motivational effects in the mere exposure paradigm. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 479499. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Webster, D.M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: "Seizing" and "freezing". Psychological Review, 103, 263283. PDF

Webster, D.M., Richter, L. & Kruglanski, A.W. (1996). On leaping to conclusions when feeling tired: Mental fatigue effects on impressional primacy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32, 181195. PDF

Ford, T.E. & Kruglanski, A.W. (1995). Effects of epistemic motivations on the use of accessible contructs in social judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21,  950962. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (1995). Motivazione e conoscenza sociale: Nemici o storia d'amore. Rassegna di Psicologia, Vol. XII, N. 2, 722.

Kruglanski, A.W. (1995). Motivatie en sociale cognitie: Liefde of haat?. Nederlandse Tijdschrift voor psychologie, 50, 2430. 

Webster, D.W. & Kruglanski, A.W. (1994). Individual Differences in need for cognitive closure. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 67, 10491062. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Webster, D.M., & Klein, A. (1993). Motivated resistance and openness to persuasion in the presence or absence of prior information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 861876. PDF

Ellis, S. & Kruglanski, A. W. (1992). Self as epistemic authority: Effects on experiential and instructional learning. Social Cognition, 10, 357375. PDF

Heaton, A.W. & Kruglanski, A.W. (1991). Person perception by introverts and extroverts under time pressure: Need for closure effects. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 161165. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Webster, D.M. (1991). Group members' reactions to opinion deviates and conformists at varying degrees of proximity to decision deadline and of environmental noise. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 212225. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W., Peri, N., & Zakai, D. (1991). Interactive effects of need for closure and initial confidence on social information seeking. Social Cognition, 9, 127148. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (1990). Lay epistemic theory in social cognitive psychology. (target article for peer commentary) Psychological Inquiry, 1, 181197. PDF

Kruglanski, A., & Mackie, D. (1990). Majority and minority influence: A judgmental process analysis. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European Review of Social Psychology, 1, 229261. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Mayseless, O., (1990). Classic and current social comparison research: Expanding the perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 195208. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Meinholdt, C. (1990). Cognitive and motivational bases of judgmental biases: Toward a synthesis. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 21, 291305. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. & Meinholdt, C. (1990). Cognitive biases, self deceptions, and defense mechanisms: Bridging the gulf. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 21, 269277.

BarTal, D., Kruglanski, A.W. & Klar, Y. (1989). Conflict termination: An epistemological  analysis of international cases. Political Psychology, 10, 233255. PDF

Kruglanski, A.W. (1989). The Psychology of being "right": On the problem of accuracy in social perception and cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 395409. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1989). Schemata and inferences across time and space: On the thematic continuities of cognitive psychology. International Journal of Theoretical Psychology Annals, 1, 8595. PDF

Kruglanski, A. W. & Mayseless, 0. (1988). Contextual effects in hypothesis testing: The role of competing hypotheses and epistemic motivations. Social Cognition, 6, 120.

Kruglanski, A., & Klar, Y. (1987). A view from a bridge: Synthesizing the consistency and attribution paradigms from the layepistemic perspective. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17, 211241. PDF

Kruglanski, A. W. & Mayseless, O. (1987). Motivational effects in the social comparison of opinions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 834842. PDF

Mayseless, O., & Kruglanski, A. W. (1987). What makes you so sure? Effects of epistemic motivations on judgmental confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 39, 162183. PDF

Mayseless, O. & Kruglanski, A. W. (1987). Accuracy of estimates in the social comparison of abilities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 217229. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1986). Attribution in the mid eighties (book review of J. H. Harvey & G.  Weary (Eds.), Attribution). Science, 232, 665666.

Kruglanski, A. (1986). Freezethink and the Challenger disaster. Psychology Today, 20, August. 48-49. 

Freund, T., Kruglanski, A., & Schpitzajzen, A. (1985). The freezing and unfreezing of  impressional primacy: Effects of the need for structure and the fear of invalidity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11, 479487. PDF

Kruglanski, A., Friedl &, N., & Farkash, E. (1984). Lay persons' sensitivity to statistical information: The case of high perceived relevance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 503518. PDF

Kruglanski, A., & Ajzen, 1. (1983). Bias and error in human judgement. European Journal of Social Psychology, 13, 144. PDF

Kruglanski, A., & Freund, T. (1983). The freezing and unfreezing of lay inferences: Effects on impressional primacy, ethnic stereotyping and numerical anchoring. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 448468. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1982). But can you be sure?: The psychology of sounder judgements revisited. Psychologie Heute, October. 

Kruglanski, A. (1982). Kognitive Sozialpsychologie: Eine Betrachtung zum Kognitiven pluralismus and irrationalismus. Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie, 13, 150162. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1981). The epistemic approach in cognitive therapy. The International Journal of Psychology, 16, 275297.  PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1980). Lay epistemologic process and contents: Another look at attribution theory. Psychological Review, 87, 7087. PDF  

Kruglanski, A. (1979). Causal explanation, teleological explanation: On radical particularism in attribution theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 14471457. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1978). Quantifying the interpersonal expectancy effect: On the place of statistical significance in a program of research. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 399400. PDF

Kruglanski, A., Schwartz, J., Maides, S., & Hamel, 1. (1978). Covariation, discounting and augmentation: Toward a clarification of attribution principles. Journal of Personality,  46, 176199. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1977). The doing of one's thing. Contemporary Psychology, 21, 869870. (A book review of Deci's Intrinsic Motivation). PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1977). The place of naive contents in a theory of attribution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 592605. PDF

Kruglanski, A., Stein, C., & Riter, A. (1977). Contingencies of exogenous reward and task performance: On the minimax principle in instrumental behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7, 141148. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1975). The endogenous exogenous partition in attribution theory. Psychological Review, 82, 3 87406. PDF

Kruglanski, A., & Cohen, M. (1975). Attributing freedom in the decision context: Effects of the choice alternatives degree of commitment and predecision uncertainty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 178187. PDF

Kruglanski, A., Riter, A., Amitai, A., Margolin, R., Shabtai, L., & Zaksh, D. (1975). Can money enhance intrinsic motivation: A test of the content consequence hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 744750. PDF

Kruglanski, A., Riter, A., Arazi, D. Agassi, R., Monteqio, J., Peri, I & Peretz, M. (1975). The effects of task intrinsic rewards on extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 699706. PDF

Ziv, A., Kruglanski, A., & Shulman, S. (1975). Children's psychological reactions to wartime stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 2430. PDF

Kruglanski, A., & Yinon, Y. (1974). Evaluating an immoral act under threat vs. temptation: An illustration of the achievement principle in moral judgements. Journal of Moral Education, 3, 167 175. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1973). Much ado about the volunteer artifacts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 348354. PDF

Kruglanski, A., & Cohen, M. (1973). Attributed freedom and personal causation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 245250. PDF

Gross, D. W., Kelley, H. H., Kruglanski, A., & Patch, M. E. (1972). Contingency of  consequences and type of incentives in interdependent escape. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 8, 360377. PDF

Kruglanski, A., Alon, S., & Lewis, T. (1972). Retrospective misattribution and task enjoyment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 8, 493501. PDF

Ziv, A., Kruglanski, A., & Shulman, S. (1972). Children's attitudes to war and local patriotism in shelled and nonshelled urban settlements. Chavat Daat, 1, 16.

Kruglanski, A., Friedman, I., & Zeevi, G. (1971). The effects of extrinsic incentive on some qualitative aspects of task performance. Journal of Personality, 29, 606617. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1970). Attributing trustworthiness in supervisor worker relations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 6, 214232. PDF

Kruglanski, A. (1969). Incentives in interdependent escape as affecting the degree of group incoordination. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 454466. PDF

Book Chapters in Edited Books

Kruglanski, A.W., Chernikova, M., & Kopetz, C. (2015). Emerging trends in motivation  science: The "What" and the "How" of Willing and Striving. In R. Scott & S. Kosslyn (Eds). Emerging trends in social and behavioral sciences, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Kruglanski, A.W., Klein, K., Pierro, A., & Mannetti, L. (2014). The unimodel unfolding. In J. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.) Dual Process Theories of the Social Mind. New York: Guilford Press.

Kruglanski, A.W. & Sheveland, A. (2013) The role of epistemic motivations in knowledge formation. In S. Kreitler (Ed.) Cognition and motivation: Forging an  interdisciplinary perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kruglanski, A.W. (2012) Lay epistemic theory. In P.A.M. Van Lange, A.W. Kruglanski, & E.T. Higgins (Eds) In Handbook of theories of social psychology (Vol 1) (pp. 201-233).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Orehek, E. (2012) The need for certainty as a psychological nexus for individuals and society. In M.A. Hogg & D.L. Blaylock (Eds) Extremism and the  psychology of uncertainty (pp. 1-18). New York, Guilford Press.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Shteynberg, G. (2012) Cognitive consistency as means to an end: How subjective logic affords knowledge. In B. Gawronski & F. Strack (Eds.) Cognitive  consistency: A fundamental principle in social cognition (pp. 245-264.). New York:  Guilford Press.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Orehek, E. (2011). The role of the quest for personal significance in  motivating terrorism. In J.P. Forgas, A.W. Kruglanski, & K.D. Williams, (Eds.) The  Psychology of Social Conflict and Aggression. New York: Psychology Press.

Courage, M.L., Howe, M.L., Ilkowski,M., Engle, R.W., Kossowska, M. Orehek, E.,  Kruglanski, A.W. . . . Brzezicka, A. (2010) Individual differences in working memory and  higher-ordered processing: The commentaries. In A. Gruszka, G. Matthews, & B.  Szymura, (Eds.). Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition: Attention, Memory,  and Executive Control (pp. 369-382). New York: Springer Science.

Kossowska, M., Orehek, E., & Kruglanski, (2010) Motivation towards closure and  cognitive resources: An individual differences approach. In A. Gruszka, G. Matthews, &  B. Szymura, (Eds.). Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition: Attention,  Memory, and Executive Control (pp. 369-382). New York: Springer Science.

Kruglanski, A.W. & Kopetz, C. (2010). Unpacking the self-control dilemma and its  modes of resolution. In R. Hassin, K. Ochsner, & Y. Trope (Eds.) Self-control in Society,  Mind & Brain (pp.297-311).. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kruglanski, A. W., Orehek, E., Higgins, E. T., Pierro, A. & Shalev, I. (2010). Modes of  self-regulation: Assessment and locomotion as independent determinants in goal-pursuit.  In R. Hoyle (Ed.) Handbook of Personality and Self-Regulation (375-402). Malden. MA:  Blackwell Publishing.

Dechesne, M. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2009). Motivated cognition in interpersonal context:  Need for closure and its implications for information regulation and social interaction. In.  T.S. Afifi, & W.A. Afifi (Eds.) Uncertainty, Information Management, and Disclosure  Decisions: Theories and Applications (pp. 128-141). New York: Routledge/Taylor &  Francis Group.

Fitzsimons, G.M., Friesen, J., Orehek, E., & Kruglanski. A.W. (2009). Progress-induced goal shifting as a self-regulatory strategy. In J.P. Forgas, R.F. Baumeister, & D.M. Tice (Eds.) Psychology of self-regulation: Cognitive, Affective, and Motivational Processes (pp. 183-197). New York: Psychology press.

Kruglanski, A.W. & Fishman, S. (2009). The need for cognitive closure In M. Leary and  R. H. Hoyle (Eds). Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 343-353).  New York: Guilford.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Kopetz, C. (2009). The role of goal systems in self-regulations. In E.  Morsella, J.A. Bargh, & P.M. Gollwitzer (Eds.) Oxford Handbook of Human Action (pp.  350-367). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kruglanski, A.W. & Kopetz, C. (2009). What is so special (and non special) about goals ?  A view from the cognitive perspective. In Moscovitz, G. & Grant, H. (Eds.). The  Psychology of Goals (pp. 27-55). Now York: Guilford.

Higgins, E.T., Pierro, A. & Kruglanski, A.W. (2008). Re-thinking culture and personality:  How self-regulatory universals create cross-cultural differences. In R. Sorrentino (Ed).  Handbook of Motivation and Cognition Within and Across Cultures (pp. 161-190). New  York: Guilford Press.

Kruglanski, A.W. & Chun, W.Y. (2008). Motivated closed-mindedness and its social  consequences. In J.Y Shah, & W.L. Gardner (Eds.) Handbook of Motivation Science (pp.  84-99). New York: Guilford Press.

Shah J.Y., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2008). Structural dynamics: The challenge of change in  goal systems. In J.Y Shah, & W.L. Gardner (Eds.) Handbook of Motivation Science (pp.  217-229). New York: Guilford Press.

Cole, A., Adams-Fuller, T., Cole, O.J., Kruglanski, A.W., & Glymph, A. (2007). Making  sense of a hurricane: Social identity and attribution explanations of race-related  differences in Katrina disaster responses. In H. Potter (Ed.). Racing the Storm (pp. 3-32).  Idaho Falls, Idaho: Lexington Books.

Kruglanski, A.W. & Semin, G. (2007). The epistemic bases of interpersonal  communication. In M. Hewstone, H.A.W. Schut, J.B.F. De Wit, K. van den Bos, & M.S.  Stroebe (Eds.) The Scope of Social Psychology: Theory and Applications (pp. 107-120).  New York: Psychology Press.

Kruglanski, A.W. & Sleeth-Keppler, D. (2007). Principles of social judgment. In A.W.  Kruglanski & E.T., Higgins (Eds.). Social Psychology: A Handbook of Basic Principles  (2nd Edition) (pp. 116-137). New York: Guilford.

Chun, W.Y, & Kruglanski, A. W. (2005). Consumption as a Multiple Goal Pursuit without  Awareness. In F. R. Kardes, P. M. Herr, & J. Nantel. (Eds.), Applying social cognition to  consumer-focused strategy (pp. 25-43). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Stroebe, W. (2005). The influence of belief and goals on attitudes:  Issues of structure, function and dynamics. In. D. Albarracin, B. Johnson, & M.P. Zanna  (Eds.). Handbook of Attitude Research (pp. 323-368). New York: Guilford.

Richter, L., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2004). Motivated closed mindedness and the emergence  of culture. In M. Schaller & C. Crandall (Eds.). The Psychological Foundations of  Culture (pp. 101-121). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Kruglanski, A.W., Chun, W.Y., Erb, H.P,, Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., & Spiegel, S. (2003). A  parametric model of human judgment: Integrating the dual-mode frameworks in social  cognition from a singular perspective. In J. Forgas, Von Hippel, W., and K. Williams  (Eds.), Social Judgments: Implicit and explicit process (pp. 137-161). Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

Kruglanski, A.W., Erb, H.P., Spiegel, S., & Pierro, A. (2003). A parametric unimodel of  human judgment: A fanfare to the common thinker. In L.G. Aspinwall & U.M.  Staudinger (Eds.). A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future  directions for a positive psychology (pp. 197-210). Washington, D.C.: APA Press.

Kruglanski, A.W., Fishbach, A., Erb, H.P., Pierro, A., & Mannetti, L. (2003). The  unimodel as a theory of persuasion. In G. Haddock and G. R. Maio (Eds.), Theoretical  Perspectives on Attitudes for the 21st Century: The Gregynog Symposium. New York:  Psychology Press.

Shah, J.Y., Kruglanski, A.W., & Friedman, R. (2003). Motivation as cognition: A goal systemic analysis of thought, action and performance. In S. Spencer, Fein, S., M. Zanna,  & J. Olson (Eds.).The Ontario Symposium. (Vol. 9, pp. 247-276).. Hillsdale, J.:Erlbaum.

Kruglanski, A.W., Erb, H.P., Pierro, A. & Spiegel, S. (2001). A parametric unimodel of  human judgment: A fanfare to the common thinker. In L.G. Aspinwall & U.M. Staudinger (Eds.). A psychology of human strengths: Perspectives on an emerging field.  Washington, D.C.: APA Press.

Kruglanski, A.W. (2000). Social cognition, social representations and the dilemmas of  social theory construction. In K. Deaux & G. Philogene (Eds.). Social representations:  Introductions and explorations (pp. 242-248). New York: Blackwell.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Webster, D.M. (2000). Motivated closing of the mind: ‘Siezing’ and  ‘freezing.’ In E.T. Higgins & A.W. Kruglanski (Eds) Motivational Science: Social and  Personality Perspectives (pp. 354-375). New York: Psychology Press.

Shah, J. Y.& Kruglanski, A.W. (2000). Aspects of goal networks: Implications for self regulation. In M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich, and M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self  regulation (pp. 85-110). San Diego: Academic Press.

Shah, J.Y.& Kruglanski, A.W. (2000). The structure and substance of intrinsic motivation.  In C. Sansone & J.M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic Motivation: Controversies and New  Directions (pp. 105-127) San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Thompson, E.P., Kruglanski, A.W. & Spiegel, S. (2000). Attitudes as knowledge  structures and persuasion as a specific case of subjective knowledge acquisition. In J.M.  Olson & G.R. Maio (Eds.). Why we evaluate: Functions of attitudes (pp. 59-95). Mahvah,  NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Jost, J.T., Kruglanski, A.W.,& Simon, L. (1999). Effects of epistemic motivation on  conservatism, intolerance, and other system justifying attitudes. In L. Thompson, D.M.  Messick, and J.M. Levine (Eds.), Shared knowledge in organizations (pp. 91-116).  Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Kruglanski, A.W., Thompson, E.P. & Spiegel, S. (1999). Separate or equal?: Bimodal  notions of persuasion and a single process "unimodel." In S. Chaiken and Y. Trope (Eds.),  Dual process models in social cognition: A source book (pp. 293-313). New York:  Guilford.

Kruglanski, A.W. (1996). Epistemique naive: Comment sont formee des credences. In J.  L. Beavois and J. C. Deschamps (Eds.), Traite de Psychologie Sociale (Vol. 11, pp. 221  223). Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.

Kruglanski, A. W. (1996). Goals as knowledge structures. In P.M. Gollwitzer and J. A.  Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 599 618). New York: Guilford.

Kruglanski, A. W. (1996). Motivated social cognition: Principles of the interface. In E. T.  Higgins and A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social Psychology: A Handbook of Basic  Principles (pp. 493-522). New York: Guilford.

 Kruglanski, A. W. (1996). Motivated gatekeeper of our minds: Need for closure effects on  interpersonal phenomena. In E.T. Higgins and R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), The Handbook of  Motivation and Cognition (Vol. 3, pp. 465 496). New York: Guilford.

Kruglanski, A.W. (1995). Lay epistemics. In A.S.R. Manstead and M. Hewstone (Eds.),  The Blackwell Dictionary of Social Psychology. Blackwell: Oxford.

Kruglanski, A.W. (1994). The social cognitive bases of scientific knowledge. In William  Shadish & Steve Fuller (Eds.). The Social Psychology of Science (pp. 197-213). The  Guilford Press: New York, London.

Kruglanski, A.W. (1990). Motivations for judging and knowing: Implications for causal  attribution. In E.T. Higgins and R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.). The Handbook of Motivation and  Cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 333 386). New York: Guilford.

Kruglanski, A.W. (1990). Conditions for accuracy: general and specific. In J.P. Caverni,  J.M. Fabre and M. Gonzales (Eds.), Cognitive biases: Their contribution to  understanding human cognitive processes, (pp. 15 34). Amsterdam: North Holland.

Klar, Y., Bar Tal, D., & Kruglanski, A.. (1989). Conflict as a cognitive schema. In W.  Stroebe, A. Kruglanski, D. Bar Tal, & M. Hewstone (Eds.), The social psychology of  intergroup conflict: Theory and research (pp.73-85). New York: Springer.

Bar-Tal, D. & Kruglanski, A.W. (1988). The social psychology of knowledge: Its scope  and meaning. In D. Bar-Tal, & A.W. Kruglanski (Eds). The Social Psychology of  Knowledge (pp. 1-14). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kruglanski, A. (1988). Knowledge as a social psychological construct. In D. Bar Tal & A.  Kruglanski (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Knowledge (pp.109-141). Oxford:  Cambridge University Press.

Kruglanski, A., & Jaffe, Y. (1988). Curing by Knowing: The epistemic approach to  cognitive therapy. In L. Abramson (Ed.), Social Cognition and Clinical Psychology (pp.  254-291). New York: The Guilford Press.

Kruglanski, A. (1987). Blame placing schemata in attributional research. In C. F.  Graumann & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Changing Conceptions of Conspiracy Theories (pp.  219-229). New York: Springer.

Kruglanski, A. & Klar, 1. (1985). Knowing what to do: On the epistemology of actions.  In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann, Action Control: From Cognition to Behavior (pp. 101-128).  New York: Springer.

Kruglanski, A., & Baldwin, M. W., & Towson, S. (1983). The lay epistemic process in  social cognition. In M. Hewstone (Ed.), New Developments in Attribution Theory (pp.  81-95). Oxford: Blackwell and in German translation. D. Frey & M. Irle (Eds.),  Sozialpsychologische Theorienerspektiven, Vol. 2. Bern: Huber Verlag.

Kruglanski, A., & Jaffe, Y. (1983). The lay epistemic model in cognitive therapy. In M.  Rosenbaum, C. Franks, & Y. Jaffe (Eds.), Perspective on Behavior Therapy in the 80's  (pp. 217-233). New York: Springer.

Kruglanski, A. (1982). The consistency principle in dissonance and attribution. In H.  Hiebsch, H. Brandstatter, & H. Kelley (Eds.), Social Psychology. VEB Deutscher Verlag:  Berlin.

Kruglanski, A. (1978). Endogenous attribution and intrinsic motivation. In D. Greene &  M. R. Lepper (Eds.), The Hidden Costs of Reward: New Perspective on the Psychology of  Human Motivation (pp. 85-108).. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Pub.

 Kruglanski, A., Hamel, I., Maides, S., & Schwartz, J. (1978). Attribution theory as a  special case of lay epistemology. In J. H. Harvey, W. J. Ickes, & R. F. Kidd (Eds.), New  Directions in Attribution Research (Vol. 2, pp. 299-333). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence  Erlbaum.

Raven, B. H., & Kruglanski, A. W. (1970) Power and conflict. In P. Swingle (Ed.), The  Structure of Conflict, (pp.69-109). New York: Academic Press.